The Development Of Architecture On The Archipelago

By: Muhammad Rahmatullah Maulidi

 

Cultural diversity or cultural diversity is a necessity that exists in the earth of Indonesia and something that can not be denied existence. In the context of the understanding of plural society, in addition to the culture of ethnic groups, Indonesian society also consists of various regional cultures are territorial which is a meeting of various cultures of ethnic groups in the area. Indonesian people also live in areas with varying geographical conditions, ranging from mountains, forest edge, coastal, lowland, rural, to urban areas. It also deals with the degree of civilization of different ethnic groups and communities in Indonesia. Meetings with outside cultures also influence the process of cultural assimilation in Indonesia, thus increasing the variety of cultures present in Indonesia. Then also the growing and widespread of major religions in Indonesia helped support the development of Indonesian culture so as to reflect certain religious cultures. Therefore, the State of Indonesia is one country with a level of cultural diversity or the level of heterogeneity is very high.

This cultural diversity is the hallmark of Indonesia’s superiority compared to other countries. Indonesia has a complete and varied cultural portrait, and equally important is to have a history of inter-cultural dynamics interacted long ago through the building style. Interaction between cultures of the building style woven before the independent state of Indonesia, through colonial Dutch, Portuguese and japanese colonies, through the spread of religion, merchants, and merchants of Arab and Chinese brought a cultural change that has a profound effect on traditional style of building and technique.

At this time the style of building in Indonesia can not be separated from the cultural influences of other nations that affect the building style of building in Indonesia. Given the evolving reality of today, it seems very difficult to determine the best path for the development of architecture. So great architecture, so fast gliding with style and new forms, trying to cram the existing architecture in our country. The current growing reality, residential or office buildings using elements of Spanish and Greek style architecture, the symptoms have reached the level of concern. The development and changes made by the architecture adapted by their taste (architecture) that in turn will affect the atmosphere of the environment and change the behavior of surrounding communities.

In general, architects pay less attention to the development of design concepts, in completing the design results. Character or nature of a building will have an impact on the development and lifestyle of human needs and the environment, from where we are required to be able to master or understand environmental problems. At this time the phenomenon that occurred in Indonesia there is a massive development also experienced a revolution of housing construction (real estate) and shophouses that often do not pay attention to environmental aspects, so not infrequently floods occur in big cities, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang and other big cities. Various movements have built a new conception for life in the home, by first interpreting the modern lifestyle. There is a Le Corbusier dictum that reads: the dwelling house is a machine, the machine meant by this architect is, the household appliances that can for the efficient work. At this time has not seen any interpretation of the living space in a residence, in general is difficult because of unequal living habits in Indonesian society.

 

In general, the Indonesian people have been exposed to syndromes of gothic, baroque, rococo, corinian and other classical forms of synthesis. Almost everything comes from mainland Europe. No wonder the houses show curved windows with a corridor column, like a small palace in the middle of the township. Not only home stay, shopping centers, hotels, shops, recreation centers and so forth, exposed also the rhythm of the mode.

Indeed, the current development of the more rapidly, both population growth, technology and architectural work sometimes have exceeded the limits of the value of human dignity. Perhaps only the physical form of the building will reveal the facts of the work of the architects, which diengarui from various views, and will eventually lead us to the alien state according to the times.

I will not blame the outcome of those works against the rules, but the tendency that brings about the personal pleasures of the architect should be dispelled, the moral to prevent and deal with the above syndrome should be immediately enforced. For the journey of culture is also the journey of society and its architecture, while history will record it.

Therefore, in my opinion, an Indonesian architecture must always be able to develop a building style to be developed on the basis of past development, built this time to face the future. The development of architecture depends not only on the ability of the architects but also depends more on the responses and appreciation of the people. As William Wayne Caudill puts it in (Architecture by Team, Van Nostrad Reihold 1971), “Shape and roar is not architecture, architecture occurs when a person is enjoying the form and space. The community here is highly demanded to play a role in the development of architecture, the development of understanding and appreciation of the importance of the role of architects in the development of the nation needs special attention from the community. But in the apparent reality of today, the widening of the distinction between architects, government and society tends to bring about wisdom that intersects profoundly with the ideals of architects.

One way to offset the development in Indonesia while preserving the environment and future generations, it needs sustainable construction and green building, that is the concept of building style or building built by taking into account the surrounding environment which covers all aspects of development from designing, using, recycle. The concept of sustainable construction aims to meet the needs of human dwellings today, including its infrastructure network, without compromising the ability of future generations to continue to build.

Therefore, the building style built in Indonesia by the architecture should combine or integrate the traditional architectural style (colored by local culture and customs), religious architecture (colored by religious buildings and the sanctity of the function of space), Architectural Palace (colored by government buildings and kingdom), and contemporary or modern architecture as a style of building that has links to every thing that develops in the present or that shows the contemporary character with regard to the shape, size, and materials used to build the building.

 

INDONESIAN VERSION

Keragaman budaya atau cultural diversity merupakan keniscayaan yang ada di bumi pertiwi Indonesia dan sesuatu yang tidak dapat dipungkiri keberadaannya. Dalam konteks pemahaman masyarakat majemuk, selain kebudayaan kelompok suku bangsa, masyarakat Indonesia juga terdiri dari berbagai kebudayaan daerah bersifat kewilayahan yang merupakan pertemuan dari berbagai kebudayaan kelompok suku bangsa yang ada di daerah tersebut. Masyarakat Indonesia juga mendiami dalam wilayah dengan kondisi geografis yang bervariasi, mulai dari pegunungan, tepian hutan, pesisir, dataran rendah, pedesaan, hingga perkotaan. Hal ini juga berkaitan dengan tingkat peradaban kelompok-kelompok suku bangsa dan masyarakat di Indonesia yang berbeda dan beragam. Pertemuan-pertemuan dengan kebudayaan luar juga mempengaruhi proses asimilasi kebudayaan yang ada di Indonesia sehingga menambah ragamnya jenis kebudayaan yang ada di Indonesia. Kemudian juga berkembang dan meluasnya agama-agama besar di Indonesia turut mendukung perkembangan kebudayaan Indonesia sehingga memcerminkan kebudayaan agama tertentu. Oleh karena itu Negara Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara dengan tingkat keaneragaman budaya atau tingkat heterogenitasnya yang sangat tinggi.

 

Keanekaragaman budaya inilah yang menjadi ciri keunggulan Indonesia dibandingkan dengan negara lainnya. Indonesia mempunyai potret kebudayaan yang lengkap dan bervariasi, dan yang tidak kalah pentingnya adalah mempunyai jalinan sejarah dinamika interaksi antar kebudayaan yang dirangkai sejak dulu melalui gaya bangunan. Interaksi antar kebudayaan gaya bangunan dijalin sebelum negara Indonesia merdeka, melalui penjajahan kolonial Belanda, portugis dan jepang, melalui penyebar agama, pedagang, dan saudagar dari Arab dan Cina membawa perubahan budaya yang memiliki efek mendalam pada gaya bangunan dan teknik secara tradisionalnya.

 

Pada saat ini gaya bangunan di Indonesia tidak lepas dari pengaruh budaya bangsa bangsa lain yang mempengaruhi pembangunan gaya bangunan di Indonesia. Melihat kenyataan yang berkembang pada saat ini, rasanya sangat sulit untuk menentukan jalan yang terbaik bagi perkembangan arsitektur. Begitu hebatnya arsitektur, sehingga meluncur secara cepat dengan gaya dan bentuk-bentuk barunya, mencoba menerjang arsitektur yang ada di negara kita. Realitas yang berkembang saat ini, bangunan-bangunan perumahan atau perkantoran dengan menggunakan unsur-unsur arsitektur gaya Spanyol dan Yunani, gejalanya sudah sampai pada tingkat memprihatinkan. Perkembangan dan perubahan yang dilakukan para arsitektur yang disesuaikan oleh selera mereka (arsitektur) itu pada gilirannya akan mempengaruhi suasana lingkungan hidup serta mengubah perilaku masyarakat di sekitarnya.

 

Pada umumnya para arsitek kurang memperhatikan pengembangan konsep perancangan, di dalam menyelesaikan hasil rancangannya. Karakter atau sifat suatu bangunan akan memberikan dampak pada perkembangan dan pola hidup kebutuhan manusia dan lingkungannya, dari sinilah kita dituntut untuk dapat menguasai atau mengerti masalah lingkungan. Pada saat ini fenomena yang terjadi di Indonesia terjadi pembangunan besar-besaran juga mengalami revolusi pembangunan perumahan (real estate) dan ruko yang seringkali tidak memperhatikan pada aspek lingkungan, sehingga tidak jarang banjir terjadi di kota-kota besar, seperti Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang dan kota-kota besar lainnya. Berbagai gerakan telah membangun konsepsi terbarunya bagi kehidupan di dalam rumah tinggal, dengan terlebih dahulu menafsirkan gaya hidup modern. Ada diktum Le Corbusier berbunyi: rumah tinggal adalah mesin, mesin yang dimaksud oleh arsitek ini adalah, peralatan rumah tangga yang dapat untuk mengefisienkan kerja. Pada saat ini belum terlihat adanya penafsiran tentang ruang hidup dalam sebuah rumah tinggal, pada umumnya memang sulit karena tidak meratanya kebiasaan hidup pada masyarakat Indonesia.

 

Pada umumnya, masyarakat Indonesia sudah terkena sindrom akan mode-mode bangunan gothic, barok, rococo, korintian dan bentuk-bentuk klasik lainnya. Hampir semuanya berasal dari daratan Eropa. Tidak heran kalau rumah-rumah tinggal menampilkan jendela lengkung dengan kolom korintian, ibarat istana kecil di tengah perkampungan. Tidak hanya rumah tinggal saja, pusat perbelanjaan, hotel, pertokoan, pusat rekreasi dan sebagainya, terkena juga irama mode tersebut.

 

Memang perkembangan saat ini semakin pesat, baik pertambahan penduduk, teknologi maupun hasil karya arsitektur terkadang sudah melampaui batas-batas nilai martabat manusia. Mungkin hanya wujud fisik bangunan yang akan membeberkan fakta dari hasil kerja para arsitek, yang dipengarui dari berbagai ragam pandangan, dan pada akhirnya akan membawa kita kepada keadaan yang serba asing sesuai zamannya.

 

Saya tidak akan menyalahkan hasil dari karya-karya itu menyalahi aturan, tetapi kecenderungan yang membawa hal-hal kenikmatan pribadi arsitek hendaknya dihalau, moral untuk mencegah dan menghadapi sindrom tersebut di atas harus segera ditegakkan. Sebab perjalanan kebudayaan adalah juga perjalanan masyarakat dan arsitekturnya, sedangkan sejarah yang akan mencatatnya.

 

Oleh karena itu menurut hemat saya, seorang arsitektur Indonesia haruslah selalu bisa mengembangkan gaya bangunan untuk dikembangkan atas dasar dari pengembangan masa lalu, dibangun waktu ini untuk menghadapi hari depan. Perkembangan arsitektur tidak hanya tergantung pada kemampuan para arsitek tetapi juga lebih banyak tergantung dari tanggapan dan apresiasi masyarakat. Seperti apa yang dikatakan William Wayne Caudill dalam (Architecture by Team, Van Nostrad Reihold 1971), “Bentuk dan raung adalah bukan arsitektur, arsitektur terjadi apabila seseorang sedang menikmati bentuk dan ruang tersebut”. Masyarakat di sini sangat dituntut untuk ikut berperan dalam perkembangan arsitektur, maka pembinaan pengertian serta penghayatan akan pentingnya peran arsitek di dalam pembinaan bangsa perlu mendapat perhatian khusus dari masyarakat. Tetapi pada kenyataan yang nampak pada saat ini, adalah melebarnya perbedaan antara arsitek, pemerintah dan masyarakat cenderung mengemukakan kebijaksanaan yang bersimpangan secara telak dengan idealisme para arsitek.

 

Salah satu cara untuk mengimbangi pembangunan di Indonesia sekaligus menjaga kelestarian lingkungan hidup dan generasi mendatang, dibutuhkan sustainable construction dan green building, yaitu konsep gaya bangunan atau gedung yang dibangun dengan memerhatikan keadaan lingkungan di sekitarnya yang meliputi seluruh aspek pembangunan mulai dari perancangan, pemakaian, sampai daur ulang. Konsep sustainable construction bertujuan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hunian manusia pada masa kini, termasuk jaringan infrastrukturnya, tanpa mengorbankan kemampuan generasi mendatang untuk terus dapat membangun.

 

Oleh karena itu gaya bangunan yang dibangun di Indonesia oleh para arsitektur seyogyanya mengkombinasikan atau memperpadukan gaya Arsitektur tradisional (diwarnai oleh budaya dan adat istiadat setempat ), Arsitektur keagamaan ( diwarnai oleh bangunan keagamaan dan kesucian fungsi ruang), Arsitektur Istana ( diwarnai oleh bangunan pemerintahan dan kerajaan), dan arsitektur kontemporer atau modern sebagai gaya bangunan yang memiliki kaitan dengan setiap hal yang berkembang pada masa kini atau yang menunjukkan karakter kekinian dengan memperhatikan bentuk, ukuran, dan bahan yang digunakan untuk membangun bangunan tersebut.

 

Analysis

 Generic Structure :

  1. Thesis
  2. Argument
  3. Recommendation

 

Main Idea : Cultural diversity or cultural diversity is a necessity that exists in the earth of Indonesia and something that can not be denied existence.

Supporting Sentence : In the context of the understanding of plural society, in addition to the culture of ethnic groups, Indonesian society also consists of various regional cultures are territorial which is a meeting of various cultures of ethnic groups in the area. Indonesian people also live in areas with varying geographical conditions, ranging from mountains, forest edge, coastal, lowland, rural, to urban areas. It also deals with the degree of civilization of different ethnic groups and communities in Indonesia. Meetings with outside cultures also influence the process of cultural assimilation in Indonesia, thus increasing the variety of cultures present in Indonesia. Then also the growing and widespread of major religions in Indonesia helped support the development of Indonesian culture so as to reflect certain religious cultures. Therefore, the State of Indonesia is one country with a level of cultural diversity or the level of heterogeneity is very high.

This cultural diversity is the hallmark of Indonesia’s superiority compared to other countries. Indonesia has a complete and varied cultural portrait, and equally important is to have a history of inter-cultural dynamics interacted long ago through the building style. Interaction between cultures of the building style woven before the independent state of Indonesia, through colonial Dutch, Portuguese and japanese colonies, through the spread of religion, merchants, and merchants of Arab and Chinese brought a cultural change that has a profound effect on traditional style of building and technique.

At this time the style of building in Indonesia can not be separated from the cultural influences of other nations that affect the building style of building in Indonesia. Given the evolving reality of today, it seems very difficult to determine the best path for the development of architecture. So great architecture, so fast gliding with style and new forms, trying to cram the existing architecture in our country. The current growing reality, residential or office buildings using elements of Spanish and Greek style architecture, the symptoms have reached the level of concern. The development and changes made by the architecture adapted by their taste (architecture) that in turn will affect the atmosphere of the environment and change the behavior of surrounding communities.

In general, architects pay less attention to the development of design concepts, in completing the design results. Character or nature of a building will have an impact on the development and lifestyle of human needs and the environment, from where we are required to be able to master or understand environmental problems. At this time the phenomenon that occurred in Indonesia there is a massive development also experienced a revolution of housing construction (real estate) and shophouses that often do not pay attention to environmental aspects, so not infrequently floods occur in big cities, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang and other big cities. Various movements have built a new conception for life in the home, by first interpreting the modern lifestyle. There is a Le Corbusier dictum that reads: the dwelling house is a machine, the machine meant by this architect is, the household appliances that can for the efficient work. At this time has not seen any interpretation of the living space in a residence, in general is difficult because of unequal living habits in Indonesian society.

 

In general, the Indonesian people have been exposed to syndromes of gothic, baroque, rococo, corinian and other classical forms of synthesis. Almost everything comes from mainland Europe. No wonder the houses show curved windows with a corridor column, like a small palace in the middle of the township. Not only home stay, shopping centers, hotels, shops, recreation centers and so forth, exposed also the rhythm of the mode.

Indeed, the current development of the more rapidly, both population growth, technology and architectural work sometimes have exceeded the limits of the value of human dignity. Perhaps only the physical form of the building will reveal the facts of the work of the architects, which diengarui from various views, and will eventually lead us to the alien state according to the times.

I will not blame the outcome of those works against the rules, but the tendency that brings about the personal pleasures of the architect should be dispelled, the moral to prevent and deal with the above syndrome should be immediately enforced. For the journey of culture is also the journey of society and its architecture, while history will record it.

Therefore, in my opinion, an Indonesian architecture must always be able to develop a building style to be developed on the basis of past development, built this time to face the future. The development of architecture depends not only on the ability of the architects but also depends more on the responses and appreciation of the people. As William Wayne Caudill puts it in (Architecture by Team, Van Nostrad Reihold 1971), “Shape and roar is not architecture, architecture occurs when a person is enjoying the form and space. The community here is highly demanded to play a role in the development of architecture, the development of understanding and appreciation of the importance of the role of architects in the development of the nation needs special attention from the community. But in the apparent reality of today, the widening of the distinction between architects, government and society tends to bring about wisdom that intersects profoundly with the ideals of architects.

One way to offset the development in Indonesia while preserving the environment and future generations, it needs sustainable construction and green building, that is the concept of building style or building built by taking into account the surrounding environment which covers all aspects of development from designing, using, recycle. The concept of sustainable construction aims to meet the needs of human dwellings today, including its infrastructure network, without compromising the ability of future generations to continue to build.

Concluding Sentence : Therefore, the building style built in Indonesia by the architecture should combine or integrate the traditional architectural style (colored by local culture and customs), religious architecture (colored by religious buildings and the sanctity of the function of space), Architectural Palace (colored by government buildings and kingdom), and contemporary or modern architecture as a style of building that has links to every thing that develops in the present or that shows the contemporary character with regard to the shape, size, and materials used to build the building.

 

Unity : All of the text is back to the main idea that is The development of Architecture in the archipelago with the variety of culture ( Culture Diversity )

 

Coherence : That is Coherence , Because that is explain about culture diversity has effect on the development of architecture in the archipelago.
And the type is : Expository Paragraphs and Logical Ordering

 

Well Development : The Main Idea explain and developed in each paragraph.

 

Simple Sentence : This cultural diversity is the hallmark of Indonesia’s superiority compared to other countries. ( Paragraph 2 , Line 1 )

 

Compound :   At this time the phenomenon that occurred in Indonesia there is a massive development also experienced a revolution of housing construction (real estate) and shophouses that often do not pay attention to environmental aspects ( Paragraph 4 , Line 4 ).

I will not blame the outcome of those works against the rules, but the tendency that brings about the personal pleasures of the architect should be dispelled, the moral to prevent and deal with the above syndrome should be immediately enforced ( Paragraph 7, Line 1 ).

 

Complex :  the tendency that brings about the personal pleasures of the architect should be dispelled ( P.7 ,L.1 )

 

Compound-Complex : Cultural diversity or cultural diversity is a necessity that exists in the earth of Indonesia and something that can not be denied existence. ( P.1 , L.1 )

 

Referencing And Quotation Use :

 

 

 

 

Transition :

  • At This Time
  • Therefore
  • In Addition
  • In General

 

REFERENCES :

 

https://azmilhayat.wordpress.com/2012/10/29/perkembangan-arsitektur-di-indonesia/

https://etnobudaya.net/2009/07/24/keragaman-budaya-indonesia/

http://www.zulmaseke.web.id/2010/12/dampak-dari-perkembangan-arsitektur.html

  • Interview

Widjil,G. (2006). Merah Putih Arsitektur. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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englishteama

Just some people who studying in Islamic State University Maliki Malang "Knowledge is light and the light of God is not guided to the raiders " - Imam Shafi

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